Could it be opioid dependence?
Think you or someone you know may have opioid dependence? This simple questionnaire, based on DSM-5* criteria for opioid use disorder, can help you determine if it may be time to talk to a doctor. Answer the questions below as accurately and honestly as you can.
|Do you/they use opioids in larger amounts or for a longer period of time than your/their doctor prescribed?|
|Do you/they have a persistent desire or have you/they had unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control opioid use?|
|Do you/they spend a great deal of time trying to obtain or use opioids?|
|Do you/they have a strong desire or urge to take opioids?|
|Has your/their opioid use resulted in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home?|
|Do you/they continue to use opioids despite continuing or repeated social or personal problems caused or worsened by the effects of opioids?|
|Have you/they lost interest in former recreational activities or hobbies because of opioid use?|
|Have you/they given up or reduced social activities because of opioid use?|
|Do you/they continue to misuse† opioids even though you/they know it has harmful consequences?|
|Do you/they have difficulty controlling opioid use?|
|Without the direction of a doctor, do you/they take a higher dose of opioids in order to achieve the effects originally produced by lower doses?|
|When you/they stop or reduce the amount of opioids, do you/they experience withdrawal symptoms (eg, cramps, diarrhea, runny nose, tearing, sweating, chills, yawning, muscle pain, nausea, or vomiting)?|
*Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.
†Taking opioids more often or in higher quantities than prescribed or using opioids for nonmedical recreational purposes.